Damage from fires in tunnels always has a very high cost, on both the human and financial scale. By its very design nature, tunnels rapidly become ovens in a fire situation, resulting in concrete rubble caused by exploding aggregate blocking access/exits to extinguish/escape.
A single powder component mixed with clean, potable water before it is used in application. Recommended use for tunnels.
The human and financial cost of damage from fires in tunnels can be deleterious. By its very design nature, tunnels rapidly become ovens reaching extremely high temperatures in a fire situation, resulting in concrete rubble caused by spalling (exploding aggregate) blocking access/exits to extinguish/escape.
When designing a tunnel, it is necessary to take these factors into consideration, to provide for alternative escape routes, proper ventilation, to install fire detection systems, and to develop passive fire protection for the tunnel’s structural elements. For example, a system to protect the concrete structure is critical, since temperature gradients between the interior of the concrete are greater, given the increased heat that spalling causes.
The cost of repairing a tunnel affected by fire is far lower if a system of passive protection is already in place.